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Ownership and its standards in Islam

In the last many years concern for the issue of transferring public ownership to the private sector started to increase in both developed and developing countries, however, Islam has placed rules for distributing ownership that are appropriate in every place and time since Islam does not approve the link that prescribes that the form of ownership [should] change whenever the need of production to change is renewed or whenever some [people] respond to the whims of those who call for change but rather the matter in Islam’s perspective is that of a person who has general needs and deep-rooted inclinations that have to be satisfied within a framework that does not contravene [one’s] innate nature and at the same time preserves a person’s humaneness and develops it. So an individual in their capacity as a private human being has needs that must be satisfied through private ownership. Besides, Islam takes into consideration the innate social sentiment in a person where every individual feels that they are a member of society and that they are unable to live on their own. That is why public ownership is there to satisfy public needs, although some individuals are often unable to satisfy their [own] needs through private ownership and so such [people] suffer deprivation and a wide disparity becomes apparent in incomes and riches among individuals; accordingly, Islam made the third form of ownership – namely ownership of the state, or ownership of the Treasury –  in order that it could serve as a fund for the state, providing it with the essential finances to achieve social stability.

Islam and the economic problem The relative scarcity of resources is not a real problem, for the problem from the perspective of the Islamic viewpoint is not in the scarcity of resources, but [rather] in humans’ discontinuation in discovering them since there are many directives that urge and call people to continuous productive work, to seek knowledge and to search to understand the secrets of the cosmos and to discover resources and bounties that nature is replete with and which God has made favourably disposed to humanity. Moreover, there are customs or rules for utilising these resources through which their benefit will be proper, their yield double and their income increase. These customs are of two types: material and spiritual [and are] as an actualisation of Islam’s method of dealing in the spiritual aspect when treating every matter.

 

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Work is an obligation and right at one and the same time 

Islam is concerned with establishing the right to work for every human being. The right of the worker over the state is that it facilitates the opportunity of work for them and doesn’t procrastinate, leaving such a right for later, as productive work is one of the basic human needs; it gratifies a natural propensity in the person, provides a source of sustenance for them and stresses their place in the Muslim community as a useful member 1 and, consequently, their sense of belonging to such a Muslim community. If people are the creators of growth, and its goal, at the same time, then undoubtedly the priority in any plan for growth becomes providing productive work for all those capable of doing such work. Consequently, capital-intensive growth that leads to an increase in unemployment of a large number of workers is not, therefore, something to consider.2 What’s more, youth unemployment sometimes contributes to crime and instability. Crime is linked, first and foremost 3, to poverty and social instability, but it trends upward 4 whenever there are large groups of unemployed youth.

Islam has granted women rights which Western civilisation has not granted them as yet; Islam has granted women the right to work and the right to earn, when needed, but retained for them the right to care 5 in the family because life according to Islam is greater than money and body.

1. Literally: useful individual. 2. Literally: a place of consideration. 3. Literally: in the first place. 4. Literally: tends toward increase. 5. That is, the right for the woman to being cared for or receiving care.

 

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The Islamic view on development

The Islamic view on development is comprehensive of all aspects and constituents of human life, and isn’t [one that is] limited to the economy. It therefore deals with all phenomena of life and [all] aspects of activity within it. Likewise, it deals with feelings, conduct, conscience and sentiments. The values that such development deals with are not just economic, nor are they, generally speaking, material [either]; rather, such development is merely that of economic and material values blended together with abstract and spiritual values. Furthermore, development does not exist without morals, as morals are not [a matter of] supererogation that can be dispensed with, after which a person will have a successful working life. Moral values are a deep-rooted element that extends far down in Islamic conceptualisation and in  Muslim society in such a manner that no aspect of life, nor all of its activities, is devoid of such an element.

Every individual has the freedom to grow their  wealth [of multifarious kinds] 1, though within the legal limits. So a person must not adulterate nor monopolise human  essentials, nor lend 2 their wealth 3 at interest, nor do their employees wrong with regards to pay so as to increase their [own] profits; all this is forbidden. Only pure means exclusively are permitted in Islam for developing resources. Pure means usually don’t inflate capital to the point that widens the gulf between the classes in incomes and in riches. Capital only inflates in such an exorbitant manner with crimes hidden behind modern ways of exploitation. Inflation on the one hand, and recession on the other, are considered a path of enormous devastation.

1. NOTE: The arabic word ‘amwal’, which has been translated here as ‘wealth’, is plural of ‘mal’. ‘mal’ is a noun which means: All desirable goods, articles, utensils etc. (whether edible or not), trade goods for sale, real estates, money, or animals that an individual or group owns. [al-mu’jam al-wasit] When the writer uses the plural ‘amwal’, we can think of this to mean ‘kinds of wealth’ [translator] 2. Literally: give. [Translator] 3. NOTE: The plural word ‘amwal’ is used here in the original Arabic. See the previous note on ‘mal’ above [Footnote 1]. [Translator]

 

Islam is a system for human life which is based on making God’s law alone govern in all situations of life. Furthermore, Islam – which takes charge of organising all human life – didn’t deal with life’s different aspects haphazardly nor did it treat it as various parts. That is to say, it has an integrated, complete conception about divinity, existence, life and the human being.

Those preachers of Islam who want to adopt Western methods of thinking accept defeat when they try to renew their lives by adopting Western ways of thinking, living and conduct. This leads them to bury alive the life which they are working to revive because, from the very first moment, they depart from their unique natural way: thinking that is based on Islamic fundamentals that make the moral element deep-rooted in building life and that look at the moral goals of society, but that [also] don’t make benefit the supreme goal for morals. That is to say, Islam actualises all good goals of life while preserving the moral element in it. Its greatest dynamic value lies in that it doesn’t compartmentalise life, nor does it separate the means from the goals. Likewise, it doesn’t prescribe conflict between the material and the spiritual in the entity of life, nor in the nature of the cosmos and the human being; rather, it prescribes that life is a whole unit which travels in its entirety towards the goals compatibly and harmoniously.

Consultation is the Islamic philosophy of governance in the Muslim state, and it is likewise the Islamic philosophy of the Muslim society and of the Muslim family. Islam’s stance towards consultation didn’t stop at the point of considering it [to be] one of the human rights, rather it went to the point of making consultation an obligatory religious ordinance on the entire Muslim community – rulers and subjects – in the state, in society, in the family and in various modes of human conduct. As for the method of consultation, Islam didn’t set a specific system for it, but [rather] left the complete right and full freedom for the Muslim community in devising and inventing systems, organisations, ways and means that bring the goals and objectives of consultation close to action and offering when they are applied and put into practice.

Islam’s policy of governance exists after acceptance of the necessity of consultation between the ruler and the subject; [it exists] on the basis of justice from the rulers and obedience from the subjects. [The notion of] justice in Islamic law, therefore, is an obligatory ordinance and isn’t merely one of the rights that the person holding them is able to waive whenever they want or neglect without bearing the responsibility and [incurring] sin. As for obedience of the subjects, it means to determine [judiciously] when and when not to hear, and likewise to give obedience, together with establishing the Book of God the Exalted; thus, obedience to the ruler’s commands is not unconditional and absolute, nor should [one] persist in obedience even if the ruler was to forsake the law of God and His Messenger.

 

Arabic text 1.1

 

Arabic text 1.2

http://www.3rbi.info/Article.asp?ID=11297 Creativity is a mental and practical social activity not restricted to one specific category [of people] [1], [whether] male or female, [or] white, black or yellow…and so on; it is, rather, subject to the nature of society’s culture and society’s foundational framework that is a part of conventional culture which delineates the manner of upbringing, educational values and the outlet and scope of human energy. Innovation is, at one and the same time, the harvest of all this, an effective power in it and a tool to change it. Creativity has conditions Today there is a competitive struggle circulating among developed societies in relation to the development of creative abilities and increasing the number of creative people. That is because creative ability flourishes and grows by virtue of social circumstances, constituents and conditions and is not, as is commonly held, a natural gift one hundred percent. The need of societies for creative people increases with the nature of the current civilisational development and [with] the entering of the age of information explosion and the information society. Innovations have become accreditation documents of society’s membership among the civilisation of the information age club. Here, social thought is distinguished with the flourishing of innovative abilities among individuals, the supremacy of scientific thinking, the availability of a space for dialogue and competition on a methodological and orderly basis and [also with]  thinking here being collective, that is, the thinking of a team that transcends personal drive and one-sided isolationism. We deem communal thought here [to be] prospectively anticipating the future in a uniform, radical development or change. [1] Literally: one [genderor racial] category without another… [Translator]