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1) Establishing different types of joint-projects. 2) The existence of a tariff preferences system among countries of the Islamic world. 3) Sharing the available technology developed by these countries. 4) Forming unions for producers of commodities and raw materials in Muslim countries. 5) Unifying stances with regard to international issues raised such as the issue of foreign indebtedness, the international monetary system and the stance with regard to transnational corporations. Finally, we come to say that the Islamic methodology is [suitably] placed to operate from stages of conditions of a single human person and is [also likewise] placed for this human being that lives on this earth. [Moreover] it takes into consideration human disposition, their energy, readiness, strength, weakness and their changing conditions that they encounter. Development in the Islamic methodology is not based on fanciful desires that clash with human disposition, their reality and circumstances of their life; it is a process that guards human creation and society’s cleanliness. So it does not allow the construction of a materialistic reality whose concern is partly to dissolve creation and pollute society under the judgement of necessity that clashes with that reality. Rather, it always intends to contruct a reality that helps to preserve creation and society’s cleanliness with the slightest effort that an individual and society put in. As for positivistic ideologies, they make the entire matter arbitrary in [the span of] one generation. In the rugged and perilous road that adherents of these ideologies follow, battles and wars [spread] around, massacres take place, [streams of] blood flow, values become crushed, matters become unsettled, they then become crushed at the end and their contrived ideologies become crushed under the judgement of nature which oppressive ideologies do not withstand.

 

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The ruler is deemed responsible for the realisation of social stability by lawful methods. Islam has certainly guaranteed the plentiful availability of revenues through two principal means: a) Imposing secure financial obligations that are to be taken continuously, such as obligatory alms. b) The creation of public sectors and directing the state to invest those sectors. Islam prescribes fair regulations that prevent wealth from accumulating with a group and that lead to the fragmentation of ownership, including inheritance, wills and Islam’s combating of the amassment of money, the abolition of interest on the capital and the abolition of capital investment for natural resources.  Communal self-reliance One thing certain now is that the Islamic state, with the tremendous and various natural resources that it has, strives through common work to achieve its economic liberation and negate its subordination to foreign [countries] by virtue of adopting an independent developmental policy. Under the increasing commercial patronage by industrial countries and the aggravation of the external debts problem for an increasing number of Muslim states, the concept of self-reliance has come to have a communal dimension, meaning that it extends to comprise the establishing of [one] type of the aspects of co-operation and relations, that have mutual interest, with a group of Muslim states that suffer similar problems and concerns, there exists a variety of profitable co-operation among them. The co-operation may comprise the following vital matters:

 

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The financial system for the Islamic state

Islam has placed a financial system in accordance of which money does not exceed the goal for which it was [intended]. Among the most prominent features of the Islamic financial system is that it is a system that exists within the religious, social and economic directives of Islam; that its task is to support the message of Islam in the aforementioned areas; that the goal [of having the system] is to protect the Islamic economy; to provide work for every capable [person]; protecting such work; supporting production with its various kinds and work in its abundant availability and quality; distributing income to those deserving it in a just manner and guiding public and private spending. Financial resources at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to rely on obligatory alms, [items of] seized and surrendered [or ‘free’ Tr.] booty and the Jizya tax. During the time of the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, financial resources became plentiful and projects appeared that require multifarious expenditure, consequently other financial resources were created such as land tax and commercial tithing.

[NOTE: Jizya tax is a head tax on free non-Muslims under Muslim rule. [Hans Wehr Dictionary]]

 

 

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The Islamic organisation of stock exchanges require that chief elements of the salam contract [a type of forward sale contract], in that it is the selling of a known thing up to a certain term, be applied to future contracts in both paper money markets and commodities markets with the availability of the most important pillar of the forward sale contract, namely the intention to hand over the commodity. It is incumbent on Islamic governments to allocate equipment for surveillance over companies that deal in the stock exchange so that heads or managers of companies do not tamper with budgets thereby affecting the prices in the stock exchange and they and their subordinates gain benefit from differences in prices. This is in addition to strengthening surveillance on stock exchange traders generally so that no swindling takes place at the stock exchange. Consequently, those markets are able to perform an active role as a system for finance and investment.

 

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Commercial insurance, which insurance companies carry out, does not achieve the legal characteristic for co-operation and joint responsibility though both reciprocal insurance and social insurance achieve the functional characteristic which Islam prescribed for co-operation and making sacrifices. So these two types of insurance exist [based] on the intention of co-operation, joint responsibility and donation without desiring to pursue profits. Accordingly, they are both hence considered, in our view, a proper application of the theory of insurance. Moreover, one may apply reciprocal insurance through co-operatives in all its forms, trade unions and mass institutions. As for social insurance, the state carries it out with the intention of insuring some classes of the nation against specific dangers.